Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 (ITIS)
European starling, common starling, English starling
Eurasia and northern Africa (Linz et al. 2007)
1890-91 (Cabe 1998)
Introduced by Eugene Schiefflin as part of a plan to introduce to the U.S. all birds mentioned in the works of Shakespeare (Cabe 1998)
Causes $800 million in agricultural damage annually (Linz et al. 2007)
Cornell University. Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
Love them or hate them, there's no doubt the European Starling is a wildly successful bird. A new study from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology examines this non-native species from the inside out. What exactly happened at the genetic level as the starling population exploded from just 80 birds released in New York City's Central Park in 1890, peaking at an estimated 200 million breeding adults spread all across North America? The study appears in the journal Molecular Ecology.
Distribution / Maps / Survey Status
The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for European Starling.
Centre for Invasive Species Solutions (Australia). FeralScan.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC).
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
State and Local Government
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.
Cabe, P.R. 1998. The effects of founding bottlenecks on genetic variation in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in North America. Heredity 80:519-525.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Sturnus vulgaris. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].
Linz, G.M., H.J. Homan, S.M. Gaulker, L.B. Penry, and W.J. Bleier. 2007. European starlings: a review of an invasive species with far-reaching impacts with far-reaching impacts (PDF | 106 KB). In: Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species: Proceedings of an International Symposium, pp. 378-386.