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Virulent Newcastle Disease

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Virulent Newcaster Disease
Virulent newcastle disease symptoms, open mouth breathing with moderate swelling of the comb and wattles - Photo by USDA, Animal and Health Inspection Service
Scientific Name: 

Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) (Amarasinghe et al. 2017)

Common Name: 
Virulent Newcastle disease (vND), Exotic Newcastle disease (END), Velogenic Newcastle disease, Asiatic Newcastle disease
Native To: 
First reported in Indonesia and the United Kingdom in 1926 (Brown and Bevins 2017)
Date of U.S. Introduction: 

First outbreak in the U.S. occurred in 1971. The disease was eradicated, but additional outbreaks have occurred in 2002-2003 and 2018. (California Department of Food and Agriculture)

Means of Introduction: 
Possibly through illegally imported birds; may also be introduced to domestic flocks from wild birds (Brown and Bevins 2017)
Extremely contagious and highly lethal disease of poultry; exposure can lead to mild symptoms in humans (Brown and Bevins 2017)


USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is announcing that effective today, we are transitioning our virulent Newcastle disease (vND) efforts in southern California from a response focus to implementing a prevention plan aimed at keeping vND from recurring in the region. Even with extensive testing taking place, APHIS has not confirmed any new vND cases since February 1, 2020. As a result, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) is removing its vND quarantine.

Federally Regulated


Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.


Google. YouTube; California Department of Food and Agriculture.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Virulent Newcastle Disease.


World Organization for Animal Health.

IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Federal Government
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
International Government
Western Australia Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. Agriculture and Food Division.
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (Canada). Fish and Wildlife.
See also: Wildlife Diseases in Alberta for more fact sheets
State and Local Government
South Dakota Animal Industry Board.
See also: Avian Health for more information

Georgia Department of Agriculture.

Texas Animal Health Commission.
See also: Poultry Health for more diseases

California Department of Food and Agriculture. Animal Health Branch.

After 2 years, California has been declared free of virulent Newcastle Disease. Effective June 1, 2020 the CDFA and the USDA have announced an end to the vND quarantine in southern California. You can read the CDFA press release here.

Pennsylvania Game Commission.

University of Pennsylvania. School of Veterinary Medicine. Wildlife Futures Program.

Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension.

Mississippi State University. Extension.
See also: Publications Filed Under Poultry for more fact sheets

Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

University of California. Cooperative Extension.