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Dutch Elm Disease

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Dutch elm disease -
Dutch elm disease symptoms - Roland J. Stipes Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Scientific Name: 

Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier (ITIS)

Common Name: 

Dutch elm disease (DED)

Native To: 

Unknown, possibly Asia (Brasier et al. 2001)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 

First discovered in the U.S. during the 1930s (Olson et al.)

Means of Introduction: 

Introduced accidentally on diseased logs imported from Europe (Flores 2006)


Lethal fungal disease of elm trees (particularly American elms (Ulmus americana), which are more susceptible to the disease than other elm species) (Olson et al.)

Current U.S. Distribution: 
Has been found throughout the entire U.S. except for the desert Southwest


USDA. Blog.

Humans adores trees. But humans also migrate and trade, habits that led to the accidental introduction of insects and diseases that harm trees and alter the landscape. Examples are easy to find and may be outside your front door: American elms that once dotted streets across America succumbed to Dutch elm disease. Now all colors of ash species – black, green, white, pumpkin, and blue – are threatened by emerald ash borer. The already uncommon butternut tree, also known as white walnut, faces the possibility of extinction from a mysterious attacker. Many invasive insects and fungi come from regions where native trees have evolved to resist their attacks. When these species enter the United States, they find trees that lack this resistance. There's no immediate end to this dismal pipeline, but there is hope on the horizon.

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Produced by: USDA, FS, Forest Health Protection, and its partners.


University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Australian Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre. Pests and Diseases Image Library.


Wisconsin Public Television.

Google. YouTube; Alabama Cooperative Extension.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Dutch Elm Disease.

Council or Task Force

Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada).

See also: Fact Sheets for more information about individual invasive species, including those listed as "Prohibited Noxious" and "Noxious" under the Alberta Weed Control Act

Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).

Federal Government
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.

International Government
Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (Canada).
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.

Forestry Commission (United Kingdom). Forest Research.

State and Local Government

South Dakota Department of Agriculture & Natural Resources.

Minnesota Department of Agriculture.


Iowa State University. Extension and Outreach.

Kansas State University. Research and Extension.
See also: Common Plant Problems in Kansas for more fact sheets
North Dakota State University Agriculture and University Extension.

Utah State University Extension; Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory.

See also: Landscape Ornamental Insects for more fact sheets

Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.

See also: IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants for more pests and diseases

Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service.

University of Massachusetts Extension. Landscape, Nursery, and Urban Forestry Program.
Cornell University (New York).
See also: Clinic Factsheets for more diseases
American Phytopathological Society.

Morton Arboretum (Illinois).