An official website of the United States government.

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar.

This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely.

Butternut Canker

View all resources
Butternut canker
Butternut canker symptoms - Photo by USDA, FS, Northeastern Area
Scientific Name: 

Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Nair, Kostichka, & Kuntz) Broders & Boland (Broders and Boland 2011)


Formerly known as Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum

Common Name: 

Butternut canker

Native To: 

Unknown, possibly Asia (Furnier et al. 1999)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 

First detected in 1967, but may have been present before then (Farlee et al. 2010)

Means of Introduction: 

Lethal disease of butternut trees (Juglans cinerea) (Farlee et al. 2010)

Current U.S. Distribution: 
Northeastern and Midwestern U.S.


USDA. Blog.

Humans adores trees. But humans also migrate and trade, habits that led to the accidental introduction of insects and diseases that harm trees and alter the landscape. Examples are easy to find and may be outside your front door: American elms that once dotted streets across America succumbed to Dutch elm disease. Now all colors of ash species – black, green, white, pumpkin, and blue – are threatened by emerald ash borer. The already uncommon butternut tree, also known as white walnut, faces the possibility of extinction from a mysterious attacker. Many invasive insects and fungi come from regions where native trees have evolved to resist their attacks. When these species enter the United States, they find trees that lack this resistance. There's no immediate end to this dismal pipeline, but there is hope on the horizon.

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Produced by: USDA, FS, Forest Health Protection, and its partners.

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Maps can be downloaded and shared.


University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.


Google. Youtube; Upper Thames River Conservation Authority (Ontario).

The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority (UTRCA) is working with the Forest Gene Conservation Association (FGCA) to preserve endangered native butternut trees. This species is threatened by butternut canker, a fungal disease, and protected under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Butternut Canker.


European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).

Federal Government

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

International Government
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.

Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.

State and Local Government
New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands.
Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Forestry.
See also: Forest Health Threats for more fact sheets

University of Wisconsin - Extension.

Publication XHT1142
Purdue University Extension. Forestry and Natural Resources (Indiana).
Publication FNR-421-W
See also: Forestry and Natural Resources publications
University of Vermont. Forest Pathology.

Invasive Species Centre (Ontario).

Forest Gene Conservation Association (Canada).