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Beech Bark Disease

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Beech bark disease
Beech bark disease symptoms - Photo by Joseph O'Brien; USDA, Forest Service
Scientific Name: 

Neonectria spp. (Cale et al. 2015)

Common Name: 
Beech bark disease (BBD)
Native To: 

Unknown; the fungal pathogens may possibly be native, but the insect vector, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was introduced from Europe (Kasson and Livingston 2009; Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 

First appeared in Canada during the 1890s, and in the U.S. during the 1930s (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006; Houston 1994)

Means of Introduction: 

The insect vector (C. fagisuga) was introduced accidentally on imported European beech saplings (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)


Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (C. fagisuga) (McCullough et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution: 
Northeastern U.S. and Great Lakes Region

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Produced by: USDA, FS, Forest Health Protection, and its partners.


University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.


Google. YouTube; Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Beech Bark Disease.

Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).

Texas State University System. Texas Invasive Species Institute.
Federal Government

USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
Contains invited papers, short contributions, abstracts, and working group summaries from the Beech Bark Disease Symposium in Saranac Lake, NY, June 16-18, 2004. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-331.
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.
DOI. NPS. Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (Michigan).
International Government
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
State and Local Government

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Michigan State University Extension.

Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.

See also: IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants for more pests and diseases (Publication E2839)

University of Massachusetts Extension. Landscape, Nursery, and Urban Forestry Program.


Invasive Species Centre (Ontario).