Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake (ITIS)
Melaleuca, punktree, naiouli, cajeput tree, paper bark, broadleaf paper bark, broadleaf teatree, paperbark teatree, bottlebrush tree
Australia (Turner et al. 1997)
Early 1900s (Turner et al. 1997)
Used as an ornamental and for erosion control (Turner et al. 1997)
Degrades wetlands in several ways, including altering fire regimes, water table depth, vertical structure of plant communities, recruitment of native species, and light availability (Center et al. 2012)
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to issue permits for the release of the insect Lophodiplosis indentata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to biologically control Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae) in the continental United States. Based on the environmental assessment and other relevant data, APHIS has reached a preliminary determination that the release of this control agent within the continental United States will not have a significant impact on the environment.
The proposed action is intended to reduce the severity of environmental damage to wetlands from the invasive Melaleuca tree in the continental United States. Melaleuca is native to Australia, New Caledonia, and Papua New Guinea and was imported into Florida in the late 19th century. It has since established in Florida’s wetlands, dramatically disrupting normal water, fire, disturbance recovery, and nutrient cycles—as well as impacting the amount of light available to other plants. APHIS is making the environmental assessment available to the public for review and comment. All comments received on or before Jan. 16, 2022 will be considered. To review the environmental assessment and make comments: Go to www.regulations.gov and enter APHIS-2021-0049 in the Search field.
Distribution / Maps / Survey Status
Includes species listed as a Federal Noxious Weed under the Plant Protection Act, which makes it illegal in the U.S. to import or transport between States without a permit.
Google. YouTube; University of Florida. IFAS. Lee County Extension.
The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Melaleuca.
USDA. APHIS. PPQ. Center for Plant Health Science and Technology; California Department of Food and Agriculture.
University of Florida. IFAS. TAME Melaleuca.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC).
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN-Global.
State and Local Government
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry.
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
University of Florida. IFAS. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Center, T.D., M.F. Purcell, P.D. Pratt, et al. 2012. Biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: an Everglades invader. BioControl 57:151–165.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Melaleuca quinquenervia. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].
Turner, C., T. Center, D. Burrows, et al. 1997. Ecology and management of Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invader of wetlands in Florida, U.S.A. Wetlands Ecology and Management 5:165–178.