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Cane Toad

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Cane toad, adult - Photo by U.S. Geological Survey
Scientific Name: 
Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758); formerly Bufo marinus (ITIS)
Common Name: 
Cane toad, Giant toad, Marine toad, Giant marine toad, South American cane toad, Dominican toad, spring chicken (Belize)
Native To: 
South America, Central America, Mexico, and extreme southern Texas (NAS Database)
Date of U.S. Introduction: 
First introduced to Florida by 1936 (NAS Database)
Means of Introduction: 
Originally introduced to control sugar cane pests; has also been accidentally and intentionally released by animal importers, zoos, and laboratories (NAS Database)
Preys on and competes with native species; highly toxic to predators (including pets) (NAS Database)

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.
Provides detailed collection information as well as animated map.


University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.


Google. YouTube; University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

This is the first of three videos in the series Cane or "Bufo" Toads - An Invasive Threat to Florida Pets.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Cane Toad.

IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Centre for Invasive Species Solutions (Australia). FeralScan.
Federal Government

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.
Provides distribution maps and collection information (State and County).
International Government
Australian Government. Department of the Environment and Energy.

Business Queensland (Australia).

New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).

Centre for Invasive Species Solutions (Australia).

Victoria Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions (Australia). Agriculture.

State and Local Government
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
University of Michigan. Museum of Zoology.

University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.

Electronic Data Information Source - publication resources
University of Florida. IFAS. Florida Wildlife Extension.
Includes call of the Giant Toad
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

Australian Museum.


  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Rhinella marina. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].
  • Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Fact Sheet - Cane Toad. USGS, Gainesville, FL. [Accessed Sep 16, 2014].